The growing number of data-intensive internet-based applications and services has fueled a significant increase in the volume of data traffic. This traffic growth has increased the demands on communication networks originally developed to primarily transport voice traffic. To meet this demand, many communications service providers have and are designing and installing new networks based on fiber-optic technology, which provides greater data-carrying capacity, or bandwidth, and increased transmission speeds compared to existing communications networks. Until recently, much of the fiber deployed had been dedicated to long – haul networks. However, the demands for high- speed network access and bandwidth are shifting the focus towards more complex metropolitan networks and last-mile access networks, which require an increasing number of connections and components.